General Questions

Cannabis extraction is the process of obtaining certain compounds from Cannabis. These compounds include Cannabidiol (CBD), Terpenes, and Flavonoids. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is also sometimes obtained.

Cannabis extraction is carried out using processes that include:
● Cryogenic Ethanol Extraction.
● Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SCFE).
● Solvent Extraction.
● Hydrodistillation.
● Steam Distillation.

Cryogenic Ethanol extraction involves the use of cryogenic (very cold) ethanol below –40 deg-Celsius to extract compounds from raw material such as Cannabis.

CO2 extraction is the use of carbon dioxide as the supercritical fluid (SCF) in the supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) process. CO2 is the most popular SCF.

Temperature range of cryogenic extraction is usually between -40 and -70 degree Celsius. Such low temperatures help with pure extraction.

Cryogenic systems operate in the cryogenic temperature range, whose definition differs:

  • Below -180 deg-Celsius is the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology’s definition.
  • Below -153 deg-Celsius is the IIR International Refrigeration Congress’ (13th) definition.
  • Below -150 deg-Celsius is how some others choose to define it.

Cryogenic ethanol extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) are the two best CBD extraction processes. Very low temperatures in cryogenic extraction and the pressure-based extraction-separation mechanism of SCFE help with pure extraction.

Cryogenic piping is designed to handle the very low cryogenic temperatures below -40 deg-Celsius at least. Normal piping may not be designed for such low temperatures.

Cryogenic ethanol extraction prevent thermal distortion of CBD molecules and extraction of unwanted compounds from the Cannabis material. Also, cryogenic extraction is scalable, fast, standardizable, economical, and safe.

Low critical temperature of carbon dioxide (CO2) means that CO2 extraction system i.e. a supercritical fluid extraction system that uses CO2 as the supercritical fluid (SCF) does not thermally damage the CBD molecule.

CBD extraction technology must be a:

  • Relatively low temperature process to avoid thermal distortion of CBD molecules.
  • Precise process to avoid extraction of unwanted material from Cannabis plant material.

CBD distillation involves the use of heat which can change the chemical composition of the heat-sensitive CBD molecule. Low temperatures of cryogenic ethanol extraction avoid such thermal distortion making it a better method for Cannabis extraction .

Low critical temperature of CO2 means that the CO2 extraction machine operates at relatively lower temperatures. This avoids the thermal distortion of the heat-sensitive CBD molecule which can occur with the high temperature CBD distillation process.

Low temperatures of cryogenic ethanol extraction avoid extraction of unwanted products. CBD solvent extraction i.e. CBD extracted via solvent extraction includes solvent residues, making it impure.

CO2 extraction system is so popular because carbon dioxide (CO2) makes an excellent supercritical fluid (SCF) for the supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) process. CO2 has:

  • Low critical temperature of 31.1 deg-Celsius which avoids the thermal degeneration of heat-sensitive products such as Cannabis.
  • More manageable critical pressure of 73.9 bar.
  • Low cost and ample availability.
  • A non-toxic and non-inflammable nature.

Cryogenic Ethanol extraction offers the following benefits for Cannabis extraction:

  • Fast, targeted extraction as it does not extract undesirable products such as chlorophyll and waxes.
  • Scalable as equipment is available in multiple capacities.
  • Safe as high pressures are not involved.
  • Economical as ethanol’s cost, storage, and licensing requirements are lesser vis-a-vis butane.

Low critical temperature of carbon dioxide (CO2) ensures relatively low process temperature for CO2 extraction equipment. This avoids thermal distortion of heat sensitive essential oils.

Cannabis extraction is carried out with the aim of extracting the pure form of cannabidiol (CBD) with traces of terpenes and flavonoids. Producers generally avoid extracting tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) unless they specifically require it.

-40 to -70 deg-Celsius is the general temperature range for cryogenic ethanol extraction.

Turnkey solutions are those wherein the solution is delivered in ready-to-use condition.

Cannabinoids are a class of chemicals present in the Cannabis plant. These react with the human endocannabinoid system to produce medicinal, recreational, and even intoxicating effects. Researchers have identified over 100 cannabinoids apart from cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second most abundant cannabinoid in Cannabis. It is believed to be an option for managing sleeplessness, anxiety, and chronic pain. CBD does not trigger the brain’s cannabinoid receptors but modifies how these receptors respond to THC.

Also called simply as THC, tetrahydrocannabinol is the source of psychoactive or intoxicating effects. THC attaches to the brain’s receptors and influences pleasure, time perception, memory, coordination, and thinking.

Delta-8 THC or simply delta-8 is an isomer of delta-9 THC. Like delta-9 THC, it is psychoactive and creates euphoric effects but is milder. Its neuroprotective features can lower pain, anxiety, and nausea.

Cannabigerol (CBG) is a cannabinoid that has applications in countering pain, inflammation, and nausea on account of its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic properties.

CBC is a phytocannabinoid that is non-psychotropic, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory. It is also believed to promote brain cell development via the neurogenesis process.